Below is a brief description of the concepts “lumpers and splitters” and “metaprograms”.

Lumpers and Splitters:

There are lumpers, who like to group things into broad categories, and there are splitters, who divide things into smaller categories. While both ideologies can be useful, lumping is more often overdone. People put things that don’t necessarily belong in the same category together, which can lead to great misunderstandings, particularly when it comes to science.

Lumping seems to be a particular problem when it comes to genetic engineering.

When a scientific study shows a certain effect (positive or negative) of a certain genetically engineered trait in a certain plant species on a certain animal species when it is consumed at certain dietary levels, it does not ever mean that all genetically engineered traits in all plant species have that effect on all animals.

Meta Program Pattern

They are mental processes which manage, guide and direct other mental processes. In other words, they are processes about or at a higher level than (meta to) the mental processes they affect.

Here is a list of some popular meta program pattern:

Toward or Away
External or Internal Frame of Reference
Sorting By Self or Sorting by Others
Matcher or Mismatcher
Convincer Strategy
Possibility vs. Necessity
Independent, Cooperative and Proximity Working Styles

There are over 50 pattern listed, many of which overlap.
Below is a summary of one of the more popular distinctions.

Matcher or Mismatcher Sort

A Matcher or Mismatcher sort is based on how much sameness or difference a person finds in any situation. This sort also effectively determines how much a person will agree or disagree with you throughout a conversation.

If you ever find somebody that always seems to have to disagree with you, now you know why. – This meta-program determines how you sort information to learn, understand, and the like. Some people respond to the world by finding sameness. They look at things and see what they have in common.
– They’re matchers. – Other people are mis-matchers — difference people. There are two kinds of them. One type looks at the world and sees how things are different … The other kind of mis-matcher sees differences with exceptions. He’s like a matcher who finds sameness with exceptions in reverse – he sees the differences first, and then he’ll add the things they have in common.

A person with more of a matcher sort is often optimistic, very approving, and tends to look for similarities and common ground while conversing with others. They therefore base their decisions on the similarities they see in others, in circumstances, and in life. Therefore in order to influence, motivate and build rapport with this person you will need to listen intently and find common ground. Mirroring their experiences, beliefs, values and perceptions will help you to develop a strong emotional bond and greater levels of rapport.

A person with more of a mismatcher sort often tends to go against the grain. They tend to find faults in things, in circumstances, and in others. They always look for differences and will tend to disagree with you no matter what you do or say. Therefore, in order to influence, motivate and build rapport with this person you will need to become proficient at using reverse psychology.


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